Respostas eletroantenográficas e comportamentais de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera (Linnaeus), ao feromônio de Nasanov e ao óleo essencial de capim-limão

Patricia Daniela da Silva Pires, Josué Sant'Ana, Ricardo Bisotto-de-Oliveira

Abstract


Resumo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar as respostas eletrofisiológicas e comportamentais de abelhas africanizadas, Apis mellifera (Linnaeus), em duas idades, ao feromônio de Nasanov sintético (FNS) e ao óleo essencial de capim-limão (OCL), e verificar a porcentagem de ocupação de enxames em caixas de papelão com iscas de FNS comercial (Swarm Catch Lure®) ou OCL formulado em emulsão de parafina. Foram observadas as respostas eletroantenográficas (mV) e comportamentais de abelhas operárias nutrizes e campeiras (1-5 e 20-30 dias de idade, respectivamente) aos referidos compostos, em olfatômetro de dupla escolha. Os bioensaios de campo foram conduzidos em Eldorado do Sul e Minas do Leão (Brasil, RS), utilizando-se doze caixas com dois caixilhos contendo uma tira de cera alveolada cada e iscadas com OCL ou FNS ou sem tais tratamentos (controle). Não foram observadas diferenças nas respostas eletrofisiológicas e comportamentais entre operárias jovens e velhas submetidas aos voláteis de FNS e OCL. O limiar de resposta para o feromônio foi de 0,1 mg/mL e para o óleo, 10 mg/mL. O feromônio de Nasanov e o óleo de capim-limão desencadearam resposta quimiotáxica positiva nas abelhas. Caixas com FNS atraíram mais enxames que as com OCL e controle.

Electroanthenographic and behavioral responses of Africanized bees, Apis mellifera (Linnaeus), to nasanov pheromone and lemongrass essential oil

Abstract. The study aimed to evaluate and compare the electrophysiological and behavioral responses of africanized honey bees (workers), Apis mellifera (Linnaeus) at different ages, to synthetic Nasanov pheromone (SNP) and to lemongrass essential oil (LGO), as well as, to verify occupancy percentage of swarms in baited cardboard boxes with SNP commercial (Swarm Catch Lure®) or LGO formulated in paraffin emulsion. Tests were conducted to observe electroantennographic responses (mV) and chemotactic behavior of nurse and forage workers bees (1-5 and 20-30 days old, respectively), to those compounds, in two choice olfactometer. The field bioassay was conducted by using twelve cardboard boxes with two bee wax sheet foundation placed in each frame, baited with SNP or LGO or without these treatments (control), in Eldorado do Sul and Minas do Leão (Brazil, RS). The mean number of swarms found in all treatments, were checked weekly.  It was not observed electrophysiological and behavioral difference responses between young and old workers subjected to SNP and LGO odors. The threshold to Nasanov synthetic pheromone was 0.1 µg/µL and to lemongrass essential oil, 10 µg/µL. Synthetic Nasanov pheromone and lemon grass oil triggered positive chemotaxis in bees. Cardboard boxes with commercial SNP were more attractive to swarms than those baited with LGO and control treatment.


Keywords


Comportamento; comunicação química; enxame; olfatômetro: eletroantenográfia; Behavior; chemical communication; swarm; olfactometer; electroantennographic

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12741/ebrasilis.v11i2.769

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